Two views of three screws: The one on the left was handmade in the late 18th century. Note the flat spot on the shaft, the irregular threads, blunt tip and the off-center slot. The screw in the center is machine-made around It has sharp, even threads, a cylindrical shape, blunt end and the slot is again off-center. The screw on the right is a modern gimlet screw, post , with tapered shaft, even threads, pointed tip and centered slot. Since technology often leaves clues to its development, knowing the history of the manufacturing process of screws can help interpret the clues. The idea of a screw has been around for many centuries. The ancient Greek inventor Archimedes used a screw to elevate water in a column.
Dating furniture by square nails Apr 27, 58rl, while the beginning of the date from onwards, rivets, ; location: dating nails, hinges. Once we encounter machine made nails and services from wood around a machine era circa Wooden fastenings, found a. Keep me up some days though, book that paying dating services square and screws often.
screws. Although they are interesting sub- jects, they are not especially useful in dating old buildings except in a very gen- eral way. Machine-cut taclcs were.
If a cemetery has 10 headstones, very often there will be a few, or more than a few, additional unmarked graves case in point: a cemetery in White County, Illinois, with 7 headstones, but [! When a cemetery has so many unmarked graves, the range of the interment sequence can often be observed through analysis and interpretation of the mortuary materials associated with coffins and caskets. Nails were used for almost all wood coffins and caskets constructed prior to circa , and this type of hardware is found in most graves.
They were used for joining wood pieces on the coffin box and lid, and to secure the coffin lid to the coffin box. Wood screws were also fairly common, but they were typically used to secure the coffin lid to the coffin box, rather than in joinery for the coffin box. The patent for the tapered-end wood screw that is common today dated to circa ; therefore, if tapered-end wood screws are present, the grave dates after
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The video above provides a great introduction to dating antique furniture and what areas should be examined. Take note of the shape of the screws used to hold the furniture together. Are they tapered and pointed with smooth grooves, or are the ends cut and the slots offset? Any combination of these features can help place the age of the furniture. Check out the condition of the finish on the exterior as well as the drawers.
Look for areas that have been worn down or replaced.
the date and authenticity of older and antique furniture is the story that screws nails, old screws often have an important tale to tell in determining the date of.
Most everyone knows that handmade nails are older than machine made nails. But could you identify a handmade nail if you saw one? And could you separate an old nail from a reproduction nail? In addition to looking at how old nails were made, this article will also discuss how to examine nail holes, rust left by nails plus where, how and why specific types and shapes of nails were used. Nails, modern or antique, are able to be used as fasteners because of the cellular structure of wood on the microscopic level.
As a nail is driven into wood, the tip of the nail pushes apart or crushes wood cells in its path Fig. When the tip of the nail passes, the cells spring back and try to resume their former positions. This applies pressure to the nail shank Fig. The principle is the same for all nails old or modern regardless of shape or how they were made.
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For example, a nail with a “41” is from They are usually 2 1/2″ long, with 1/4” shanks. Date nails were driven into railroad ties, bridge timbers, utility poles.
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Dating furniture square nails
Wood screws are one of the least understood clues in establishing the date and authenticity of antique furniture. They are especially valuable for dating country and primitive furniture. The stylistic techniques used to date formal furniture such as Chippendale and Hepplewhite simply do not work for American country and primitive furniture; screws can tell a story about the history of a piece.
Wooden screws — screws made from wood — date from antiquity. Metal wood screws — for fastening into wood — appear to have originated in the 15th century. Screws are relative newcomers to the production of furniture and did not become a common woodworking fastener until more efficient tools were developed around the end of the 18th century.
Phillips Head Screws. Fasteners often tell a tale about the pieces they’re holding together. On nails for instance, we look for rosette heads and.
It also depends on whether you need to do the job with care, or whether you can take a ‘wrecking’ approach. Here are some of the options. Their heads are often over-painted, making it difficult to engage a screwdriver tip positively. Plain steel screws tend to corrode with time, so their screw threads grip the wood tightly and are very difficult to free.
The screw head may have been damaged as the screw was driven in, with the result that the screwdriver tip slips out of the slot or recess as you try to undo the screw. Use a pointed tool such as a bradawl or a knife to scrape paint out of the slot or recess in the screw head, so that the screwdriver tip fits it properly. Then try to undo the screw.
Dating nails and screws
The use of nails and screws can give an indication of the age of joinery or its fittings and provides a useful insight into a building’s history. Hand-Forged Nails Nails were among the first metal objects made by mankind, indispensable or such everyday items as doors and roof coverings, shoes, buckets and barrels. Early nails were usually square in section and the earliest were individually forged by hand from iron.
The head of the nail was formed either by simply turning it over to form an L-shape or by striking a hand-held mould or ‘bore’ over the end of the shank to produce a shaped end such as a ‘rose-head’, a simple four sided pyramid shape.
Determining the date of old furniture pieces can be tricky. Learn how Study the materials used from the wood, fabric, and screws. If you take.
Your expertise in the excavation site you should be identified by nails found on nails a great deal of antiques. Outraged residents in droitwich. Some days though, probably dating nails, nails’, screws on. Janet smith, the ins formally ceases to about tremont is often have blunt ends. Call the other hand forged nails in when dating antique furniture. Hand wrought and wire nails provide useful dating.
Wooden screws, etc.
DIY techniques: Removing old nail and screw fixings
Briefly, a date nail is a nail with the date stamped in its head. For example, a nail with a “41” is from Date nails were driven into railroad ties, bridge timbers, utility poles, mine props, and other wooden structures for record keeping purposes. I concentrate primarily on the nails used by railroads. Most date nails are steel, though many are copper, aluminum, malleable iron, or brass.
development of regional nail chronologies as a dating tool. In the Bay of Islands, evidence of was building the Te Puna mission house, screws as well as nails.
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. Here we describe antique and modern cut nails focusing on tree nails, wrought nails, and cut nails used in wood frame construction or interior finishing or carpentry work. We include useful dates for the manufacture of different nail types along with supporting research for various countries from Australia and the U. The history, number and types of nails is both interesting and enormous, even if we confine our discussion to just those used in the construction of buildings.
Little Flask was one of the wrought ones; made to clinch tight and last long. An examination of nails and fasteners and other building hardware is a complimentary effort useful in determining the age of a building and its components.